2022”N04ŒŽ16“ú

OKAZAKI Seiki: An Institutional Design for PR-LMB

‰ªú±°‹Pu"An Institutional Design for Proportional Representation with a Limited Majority Bonus" ‚ɂ‚¢‚āvA‹ãB‘åŠw­Ž¡Œ¤‹†‰ïA2022”N4ŒŽ16“úB

@–{“ú‚́AÙeyƒŠƒ“ƒNz‚̍‡•]‰ï‚Æ‚¢‚¤‹Md‚È‹@‰ï‚ð—^‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½‚¾‚«A‚ ‚肪‚Æ‚¤‚²‚´‚¢‚Ü‚·B–{˜_•¶‚́A‘½””hŒÀ’è—D‹ö‚Ì”ä—á‘ã•\§‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‘æˆê˜_•¶iw–@­Œ¤‹†x‘æ85Šª‘æ3E4†A2019”N3ŒŽj‚Æ‘æ“ñ˜_•¶iw­Ž¡Œ¤‹†x‘æ68†A2021”N3ŒŽj‚É‘±‚­‘æŽO˜_•¶‚Å‚ ‚èA‘½””hŒÀ’è—D‹ö‚Ì”ä—á‘ã•\§‚̐§“xÝŒv‚ÉŽæ‚è‘g‚ñ‚¾˜_•¶‚Æ‚¢‚¤ˆÊ’u‚¯‚É‚È‚è‚Ü‚·B‚È‚¨A2022”N“x‚́A‘½””hŒÀ’è—D‹ö‚̍‡Œ›«‚ðŒŸ“¢‚·‚é‘æŽl˜_•¶‚ðŽ·•M‚·‚é—\’è‚Å‚·B
@‘æŽO˜_•¶‚ÌŠT—v‚ðà–¾‚·‚é‘O‚ɁAw­Ž¡Œ¤‹†x‚ɉpŒê‚ŏ‘‚­‚±‚Ƃ̈Ӌ`‚ɂ‚¢‚Ĉꌾq‚ׂè‚«‚Ü‚·B‰pŒê˜_•¶‚ð‘‚­‚Ì‚Í—eˆÕ‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚Ì‚Å‚·‚ªA“¯‚¶ŠÖS‚ðŽ‚Á‚ÄŒ¤‹†‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚éŠCŠO‚ÌŒ¤‹†ŽÒ‚Əî•ñŒðŠ·EˆÓŒ©ŒðŠ·‚·‚邽‚ß‚É‚ÍŒ‡‚©‚¹‚Ü‚¹‚ñB‚Ü‚½w­Ž¡Œ¤‹†x‚́AuŒ^v‚É‚Í‚ß‚ç‚ꂸ‚É”äŠr“IŽ©—R‚ɏ‘‚­‚±‚Æ‚ª‚Å‚«‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤“_‚Å‚àA‹ãB‘åŠwƒŠƒ|ƒWƒgƒŠ‚Å–³žŒöŠJ‚Å‚«‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤“_‚Å‚àA‚½‚¢‚Ö‚ñ•‚©‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·BK‚¢A•¡”‚̃hƒCƒclŒ¤‹†ŽÒ‚ªŠÖS‚ðŠñ‚¹‚Ä‚­‚ê‚Ä‚¨‚èiƒhƒCƒc‚ł͘A—§ŒðÂ–â‘è‚ð”wŒi‚É‘½””h—D‹ö˜_‘ˆ‚ª‹N‚±‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·jA—LˆÓ‹`‚ȏî•ñŒðŠ·EˆÓŒ©ŒðŠ·‚ª‚Å‚«‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B‚¿‚Ȃ݂ɁAƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒX‘哝—ÌŒó•â‚̃}ƒŠ[ƒkEƒ‹ƒyƒ“‚à4ŒŽ12“úi‰Îj‚Ì‹LŽÒ‰ïŒ©‚É‚¨‚¢‚āA‘½””h—D‹ö‚Ì”ä—á‘ã•\§‚ւ̉üŠv‚𖾌¾‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½i‘–¯‹c‰ï‚Ì2/3‚Ì‹cÈ‚ð”ä—á‘ã•\‚Å”z•ª‚·‚éˆê•û‚ŁAŽc‚é1/3‚Ì‹cÈ‚ð‚·‚×‚Ä‘æˆê“}‚É”z•ª‚·‚鐧“x‚Å‚ ‚èAŽÀÛ‚É‚Í”ä—á‘ã•\§‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚æ‚è‚à‘½”‘ã•\§‚Å‚·jB‘½””h—D‹ö‚́A•Ê‚̐­Ž¡“I•¶–¬‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä‚Å‚·‚ªAƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒX‚É‚à”ò‚щ΂·‚é‚©‚à‚µ‚ê‚Ü‚¹‚ñB
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posted by ŽåÃŽÒ at 23:59| Comment(0) | ‰ªú±°‹P

2022”N02ŒŽ26“ú

yBook ReviewzSteffen Ganghof (2021) Beyond Presidentialism and Parliamentarism: Democratic Design and the Separation of Powers, Oxford University Press.

@In Beyond Presidentialism and Parliamentarism (Oxford University Press, 2021), Steffen Ganghof attempts to overcome the alternative between presidentialism and parliamentarism by arguing for esemi-parliamentarism.f According to Ganghof, it is true that presidentialism, contrary to (pure) parliamentarism, separates the executive and the legislative power. However, the executive power is concentrated in one person and this eexecutive personalismf (p. 1, p. 15) tends to strengthen presidential power and weaken the presidential separation of powers, as demonstrated by Donald Trump [and Vladimir Putin at this moment]. To avoid this, Ganghof defends the idea of esemi-parliamentarismf: while semi-presidentialism divides executive power into two, semi-parliamentarism divides legislative power into two parts, thus institutionalizing a eseparation of powers between the executive and one part of a directly elected assemblyf (p. 108. Regarding the definition of semi-parliamentarism, see p. 50).
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posted by ŽåÃŽÒ at 20:47| Comment(0) | ‰ªú±°‹P

2021”N04ŒŽ18“ú

OKAZAKI Seiki: The Second Desense of PR-LMB

‰ªú±°‹Pu"The Second Defense of Proportional Representation with a Limited Majority Bonus" ‚ɂ‚¢‚āvA‹ãB‘åŠw­Ž¡Œ¤‹†‰ïA2021”N4ŒŽ17“úB

@–{“ú‚́AÙeyƒŠƒ“ƒNz‚̍‡•]‰ï‚Æ‚¢‚¤‹Md‚È‹@‰ï‚ð—^‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚½‚¾‚«AŠ´ŽÓ\‚µã‚°‚Ü‚·B‚Ü‚¸Å‰‚ɁA–{˜_•¶‚ÌŠT—v‚ð‚²‚­ŠÈ’P‚Éà–¾‚µ‚Ü‚·B–{˜_•¶‚́Aw–@­Œ¤‹†x‘æ85Šª‘æ3E4†i2019”N3ŒŽj‚ÉŒfÚ‚µ‚½Ùe gIn Defense of Proportional Representation with a Limited Majority BonushiˆÈ‰ºA‘æˆê˜_•¶j‚Ì‘±•Ò‚Å‚·B‘æˆê˜_•¶‚ł́A­Œ ‘I‘ð‰Â”\‚ȏ¬‘I‹“‹æ§ vs. –¯ˆÓ”½‰f‰Â”\‚È”ä—á‘ã•\§‚Æ‚¢‚¤“ñŽÒ‘ðˆê‚ðæ‚è‰z‚¦‚邽‚߂ɁA‘½””hŒÀ’è—D‹ö‚Ì”ä—á‘ã•\§iˆÈ‰ºAPR-LMBj‚Æ‚¢‚¤‘I‹“§“x‚ðlˆÄ‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½B‚·‚È‚í‚¿A‘æˆêˆÊ‚̐­“}˜A‡“™‚É55“‚Ì‹cÈ‚ð•Ûá‚·‚é‚Æ“¯Žž‚ɁA‚»‚êˆÈŠO‚̐­“}˜A‡“™‚É‚Í45“‚Ì‹cÈ‚ð•Ûá‚·‚éB‚»‚µ‚āA‘½””hŒÀ’è—D‹öˆÈŠO‚́A“¾•[‚ɉž‚¶‚Ä‹cÈ‚ð”z•ª‚·‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚à‚Ì‚Å‚·B‘æˆê˜_•¶‚Å‚Í‚Ü‚½APR-LMB‚ÉŒü‚¯‚ç‚ê‚é‚Å‚ ‚낤ŽO‚‚̔ᔻA‚·‚È‚í‚¿‡@”ñŒø—¦«A‡A•sˆÀ’萫A‡B–³“šÓ«‚Æ‚¢‚¤”á”»‚àŒŸ“¢‚µA‚¢‚¸‚ê‚à‘Þ‚¯‚Ü‚µ‚½B
@‚µ‚©‚µA PR-LMB‚Ìà“¾—Í‚ð‚‚ß‚é‚½‚ß‚É—L—͂ȃ‰ƒCƒoƒ‹‚Æ”äŠr‚·‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤ì‹Æ‚Í‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚¹‚ñ‚Å‚µ‚½B‚»‚±‚Å–{˜_•¶iˆÈ‰ºA‘æ“ñ˜_•¶j‚ł́A—L—͂ȃ‰ƒCƒoƒ‹‚Æ‚µ‚Ä’P‹LŒÀ’èˆÚ÷‚Ì”ä—á‘ã•\§iˆÈ‰ºAPR-LTVj‚Æ‚¢‚¤‘I‹“§“x‚ðlˆÄ‚µ‚½‚¤‚¦‚ŁAPR-LTV‚æ‚è‚àPR-LMB‚Ì‚Ù‚¤‚ª—D‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚Ƙ_‚¶‚Ü‚µ‚½B
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posted by ŽåÃŽÒ at 12:13| Comment(0) | ‰ªú±°‹P

2020”N08ŒŽ07“ú

y˜_•]z@ã_‹M‰Àu‘I‹“§“x‚͍¡‚Ì‚Ü‚Ü‚Å‚æ‚¢‚©„Ÿ„Ÿu‘‘Ì‚Æ‚µ‚Ă̐§“x‰üŠvv‚̍\‘zvAw˜_‹†ƒWƒ…ƒŠƒXƒgxNo.33A2020”N4ŒŽA39-46•ÅB

@O‹c‰@AŽQ‹c‰@A’n•û‹c‰ï‚Ì‘I‹“§“x‚ªu•s‹Ïˆêv‚Å‚ ‚邽‚߁AO‹c‰@‚Ì‘I‹“§“x‰üŠv‚ÌŒø‰Ê‚ª”¼Œ¸‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Ƃ́A‘½‚­‚̐­Ž¡ŠwŽÒ‚ª˜_‚¶‚Ä‚«‚½‚Æ‚±‚ë‚Å‚·B‚µ‚©‚µA‚±‚ÌŽ–ŽÀ–½‘è‚Í‚â‚â‚à‚·‚ê‚΁AŽQ‹c‰@‚â’n•û‹c‰ï‚Ì‘I‹“§“x‚ðO‹c‰@‚ɍ‡‚킹‚ĉüŠv‚·‚ׂ«‚¾A‚Æ‚¢‚¤‹K”Í–½‘è‚Ö‚Æ”ò–ô‚µ‚â‚·‚¢B–{e‚É‚¨‚¢‚Ä’˜ŽÒ‚́A‚»‚¤‚µ‚½u‹Ïˆê«v‚ð‹‚ß‚é\‘zi–¯Žå“I“Ž¡dŽ‹‚̍\‘zj‚¾‚¯‚Å‚È‚­A‚ ‚¦‚āu‹Ïˆê«v‚ð‹‚ß‚È‚¢\‘ziŒ —Í—}§dŽ‹‚̍\‘zj‚à‚ ‚肤‚邱‚Æ‚ðŽ¦‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B’˜ŽÒ‚́u–{e‚ªu‘‘Ì‚Æ‚µ‚Ă̐§“x‰üŠvv‚ð\‘z‚·‚éŽvlŽÀŒ±‚Ì’[‚Æ‚È‚ê‚΍K‚¢‚Å‚ ‚évi46•Åj‚ÆŒ‹‚ñ‚Å‚¢‚Ü‚·‚ªA‚±‚́u•s‹Ïˆêv‚ð‹‚ß‚È‚¢\‘z‚ðŽ¦‚µ‚½“_‚ŁA–{e‚͍¡Œã‚Ì‘I‹“§“x‰üŠv˜_‚ÉŽ‘‚·‚é‚Í‚¸‚Å‚·B‚µ‚©‚µ‚É‚à‚©‚©‚í‚炸AO‹c‰@‚Ì‘I‹“§“x‚ðuŠî€vi42•ÅA45•Åj‚ɐ˜‚¦‚Ä‚¢‚é“_‚É‚Í‹^–â‚ðŠ´‚¶‚È‚¢‚킯‚É‚Í‚¢‚«‚Ü‚¹‚ñB’˜ŽÒ‚àA‚»‚Ì‚±‚ƂŁuŒ»óˆÛŽ“I‚ȃoƒCƒAƒXv‚ª‚©‚©‚邱‚Æ‚ðŽ©Šo‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·‚ªi40•ÅjA‚»‚ê‚Í‹–—e‰Â”\‚ȃoƒCƒAƒX‚É‚Æ‚Ç‚Ü‚é‚à‚Ì‚È‚Ì‚Å‚µ‚傤‚©B­‚È‚­‚È‚¢­Ž¡ŠwŽÒ‚â—LŒ ŽÒ‚ª¬‘I‹“‹æ”ä—á‘ã•\•À—§§‚É”½‘΂µ‚Ä‚¢‚邱‚Æ‚ðl‚¦‚ê‚΁A‚Æ‚Ä‚à‚»‚¤‚ÍŽv‚¦‚Ü‚¹‚ñBu‹Ïˆê«v‚ð‹‚ß‚é‚É‚¹‚拁‚ß‚È‚¢‚É‚¹‚æiŽ„‚Í‹‚ß‚È‚¢—§ê‚Å‚·‚ªjAO‹c‰@‚Ì•À—§§‚ð‘O’ñ‚É‚µ‚½‹c˜_‚Í‚ ‚肦‚¸AO‹c‰@‚Ì‘I‹“§“x‰üŠv‚ðŠÜ‚߂āu‘‘Ì‚Æ‚µ‚Ă̐§“x‰üŠvv‚ð\‘z‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚­‚ׂ«‚Å‚Í‚È‚¢‚©A‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚Ì‚ªŽ„‚©‚ç‚̉ž“š‚Å‚·Bi‰ªú±°‹Pj
posted by ŽåÃŽÒ at 17:11| Comment(0) | ‰ªú±°‹P

2020”N01ŒŽ29“ú

yÐ‰îz@‰¢B‚̏«—ˆ‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‰ï‹c

@‰¢B‹c‰ï‚Ì•ñ“¹Ž‘—¿‚É‚æ‚ê‚΁A2020”N1ŒŽ15“úi…jA‰¢B‹c‰ï‚ªu‰¢B‚̏«—ˆ‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‰ï‹cviConference on the Future of Europej‚̐ݒu‚ðŽ^¬494A”½‘Î147AŠüŒ 49‚ʼnŒˆ‚µ‚Ü‚µ‚½B‰¢B‚ª’¼–Ê‚·‚鏔‰Û‘è‚ÉŽs–¯Žå“±‚ÅŽæ‚è‘g‚Þ‚½‚߂ɁAƒe[ƒ}•Ê‚ÌŽs–¯ƒAƒSƒ‰iCitizensf Agorasj‚𕡐”AŽáŽÒƒAƒSƒ‰iYouth Agorasj‚ð2‚ˆȏãÝ’u‚µA‚»‚ꂼ‚ê200`300–¼‚Ì–³ìˆ×’Šo‚³‚ꂽŽs–¯‚ªŽs–¯‘ã•\icitizen representativesj‚Æ‚µ‚Ä“¢˜_‚·‚éB‚»‚µ‚Ä‘‰ïiConference Plenaryj‚ł́AŽs–¯‘ã•\‚ª‰¢B‹c‰ï‹cˆõiMEPsj‚ð‚Í‚¶‚ß‚Æ‚·‚鉢BŽñ”]w‚ƁAŠeƒAƒSƒ‰‚ÌŒ‹˜_‚ɂ‚¢‚Ä“¢˜_‚·‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¤‚Ì‚Å‚·B‚³‚ç‚ɁA‰¢B‹c‰ï‚͉¢B—Ž–‰ï‚Ɖ¢BˆÏˆõ‰ï‚É‚½‚¢‚µ‚ăŠƒXƒ{ƒ“ð–ñ‚ð‰ü³‚µAŽs–¯ŽQ‰Á‚̏íÝ‹@ŠÖ‚̐ݒu‚ðŒŸ“¢‚·‚é‚悤—v¿‚µ‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B‰¢B‚̏«—ˆ‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚é‰ï‹ci2020”N5ŒŽ9“úi‰¢B‚Ì“új`2022”N‰Äj‚ɊԂɍ‡‚¤‚悤‚ɉ¢B—Ž–‰ïE‰¢BˆÏˆõ‰ï‚Æ‚ÌŒðÂ‚ð‚܂Ƃ߂邱‚Æ‚ªAŽŸ‚̃Xƒeƒbƒv‚̂悤‚Å‚·BÚ‚µ‚­‚́A‰¢B‹c‰ï‚Ì•ñ“¹Ž‘—¿‚ð‚²——‚­‚¾‚³‚¢yƒŠƒ“ƒNzB
posted by ŽåÃŽÒ at 18:55| Comment(0) | ‰ªú±°‹P

2020”N01ŒŽ14“ú

yEssayz@The Japanese translation of Against Elections

@The Japanese translation of David Van Reybrouckfs Against Elections (Tegen Verkiezingen) appeared in April 2019 with an impressive hardcoveryLinkz. It was translated from Dutch to Japanese by OKAZAKI Seiki, Professor at Kyushu University, and Dimitri Vanoverbeke, Professor at KU Leuven. Despite being a little expensive (3400 yen excluding tax), the book was enthusiastically accepted by the public as soon as it was publishedyLinkz. Three of the four national newspapers published a book review: the Yomiuri Shimbun on May 19, the Asahi Shimbun on June 1, and the Nikkei on August 10. Many regional newspapers printed a book review transmitted by Kyodo News. Other newspapers and magazines also reviewed the book favourably. Supported by these reviews, the book was reprinted as early as September 2019.
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posted by ŽåÃŽÒ at 10:00| Comment(0) | ‰ªú±°‹P

2019”N06ŒŽ29“ú

yÐ‰îz@ƒXƒCƒX‚Å’–ڏW‚ß‚éu‚­‚¶ˆø‚«–¯ŽåŽå‹`v

@ƒfƒ‚ƒNƒ‰ƒV[Œ¤‹†Žºu’Š‘I‚ÅŒˆ‚ß‚é‹cˆõ§“xv‚Ì“®‰æ‚ªŒöŠJ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·yƒŠƒ“ƒNzBƒXƒCƒX‚̃Oƒ‰[ƒ‹ƒXB‚Å‚à’Š‘I§‚ªÌ—p‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚½‚悤‚Å‚·Bƒ[ƒUƒ“ƒk‘åŠw‚ÌŽá‚«Œ¤‹†ŽÒ‚É’–Ú‚Å‚·B

@☞@Mr. Maxime Mellina yƒŠƒ“ƒNz
@☞@Mr. Aurèle Dupuis@yƒŠƒ“ƒNz
posted by ŽåÃŽÒ at 17:50| Comment(0) | ‰ªú±°‹P

2019”N06ŒŽ03“ú

y‘•]z@’†–k_Ž¢wŽ©Œö­Œ ‚Ƃ͉½‚©„Ÿ„Ÿu˜A—§v‚É‚Ý‚é‹­‚³‚̐³‘́xi’}–€‘–[m‚¿‚­‚ܐV‘nA2019”NjB

@–{‘‚́AŽ©–¯“}EŒö–¾“}‚̘A—§­Œ ‚𕪐͂µ‚½V‘‚Å‚·B‘æ3Í`‘æ5Í‚ł̓|ƒXƒg55”N‘̐§‚̘A—§­Œ ‚Ì—ðŽj‚ª•ªÍ‚³‚êA‘æ6Í`‘æ7Í‚Å‚ÍŽ©Œö˜A—§­Œ ‚̍\‘¢‚ª•ªÍ‚³‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚Ü‚·B‚æ‚­’m‚ç‚ê‚Ä‚¢‚é‚悤‚ɁAŽ©–¯“}‚ÆŒö–¾“}‚́A­ôã‚Ì‘å‚«‚È‘Šˆá‚É‚à‚©‚©‚í‚炸A’·Šú‚ɂ킽‚Á‚ĘA—§‚ð‘g‚ñ‚Å‚«‚Ü‚µ‚½B‚Ç‚±‚ÉŽ©Œö˜A—§­Œ ‚Ì‹­‚³‚̔閧‚ª‚ ‚é‚Ì‚©Bƒ˜A—§­Œ ‚É‚à‚©‚©‚í‚炸„‚Å‚Í‚È‚­ƒ˜A—§­Œ ‚䂦‚Ɂ„‹­‚¢‚±‚Ƃ𖾂炩‚É‚µ‚½‚Ì‚ª–{‘‚Ì“ÁF‚Å‚ ‚é‚Æ‚¢‚¦‚é‚Å‚µ‚傤B
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posted by ŽåÃŽÒ at 12:15| Comment(0) | ‰ªú±°‹P

2019”N05ŒŽ28“ú

yÐ‰îz@Agora

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